Welcome Guest

You are viewing this forum as a guest therefore You are Not Allowed to Post and Reply and You are not allowed to view links. Register or Login


* Search

* Recent Replies

SEO for my wordpress news page by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 19, 2016]

adding a login page and registration page to a site by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 12, 2016]

Questions on website building. by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 08, 2016]

site review by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 08, 2016]

Question on links by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 08, 2016]

Implication of CBN Governor's statement by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Oct 04, 2016]

Adsense did not accept my request by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Aug 04, 2016]

What is Revenuehits by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Aug 04, 2016]

Get Paid to Write an E-Book by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Aug 02, 2016]

netcontacts real or scam by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 29, 2016]

How to Start Amazon affiliate marketing by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 29, 2016]

Can I use One website for Adsense, amazon and Information Marketing? by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 29, 2016]

Traffic generation for clickbank offer/product by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 22, 2016]

installing simple machine forum to once site by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 13, 2016]

Link not working by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 07, 2016]

Website Showcase - Drop Your Website Link(s) Here by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 07, 2016]

My weblog wasn't accepted into adsense by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jul 05, 2016]

Guest Posting by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 28, 2016]

Social Networks Addresses - Drop Your Link by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 22, 2016]

65 Website Traffic & Link Building Techniques by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 22, 2016]

No place like home by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 07, 2016]

Are PAYER and PAYONEER the same? by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 06, 2016]

Please help me...i just made $1.5 with adsense since 2014 by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 02, 2016]

Donwizy by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 02, 2016]

confused about promoting my first amazon product by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 01, 2016]

How to get the best Nigerian web hosting by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 01, 2016]

Amazon registration in becoming an affiliate 2016 by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 01, 2016]

Please help by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[Jun 01, 2016]

identification using without national id or drivers license by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[May 26, 2016]

MBE 104_7_Building a Forum. by [Not Shown, Login to View]
[May 18, 2016]

Author Topic: Genetic 'Adam' and 'Eve' Uncovered  (Read 136 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline [Not Shown, Login to View]

  • Forum Guide
  • Level 4 (Dedicated)
  • ******
  • Posts: 1052
  • Respect: +266
  • Gender: Male
  • Location: Ibadan, Oyo State of Nigeria
  • 1st Chamber
  • My Rank: 84
Genetic 'Adam' and 'Eve' Uncovered
« on: Dec 30, 2013 »
Genetic 'Adam' and 'Eve' Uncovered

By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer

Almost every man alive can trace his origins to one man who lived about 135,000 years ago, new research suggests. And that ancient man likely shared the planet with the mother of all women.
The findings, detailed today (Aug. 1) in the journal Science, come from the most complete analysis of the male carnal knowledge chromosome, or the Y chromosome, to date. The results overturn earlier research, which suggested that men's most recent common ancestor lived just 50,000 to 60,000 years ago.

Despite their overlap in time, ancient "Adam" and ancient "Eve" probably didn't even live near each other, let alone mate. [The 10 Biggest Mysteries of the First Humans]
"Those two people didn't know each other," said Melissa Wilson Sayres, a geneticist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study.

Tracing history
Researchers believe that modern humans left Africa between 60,000 and 200,000 years ago, and that the mother of all women likely emerged from East Africa. But beyond that, the details get fuzzy.
The Y chromosome is passed down identically from father to son, so mutations, or point changes, in the male carnal knowledge chromosome can trace the male line back to the father of all humans. By contrast, DNA from the mitochondria, the energy powerhouse of the cell, is carried inside the egg, so only women pass it on to their children. The DNA hidden inside mitochondria, therefore, can reveal the maternal lineage to an ancient Eve.

But over time, the male chromosome gets bloated with duplicated, jumbled-up stretches of DNA, said study co-author Carlos Bustamante, a geneticist at Stanford University in California. As a result, piecing together fragments of DNA from gene sequencing was like trying to assemble a puzzle without the image on the box top, making thorough analysis difficult.

Y chromosome
Bustamante and his colleagues assembled a much bigger piece of the puzzle by sequencing the entire genome of the Y chromosome for 69 men from seven global populations, from African San Bushmen to the Yakut of Siberia.

By assuming a mutation rate anchored to archaeological events (such as the migration of people across the Bering Strait), the team concluded that all males in their global sample shared a single male ancestor in Africa roughly 125,000 to 156,000 years ago.
In addition, mitochondrial DNA from the men, as well as similar samples from 24 women, revealed that all women on the planet trace back to a mitochondrial Eve, who lived in Africa between 99,000 and 148,000 years ago — almost the same time period during which the Y-chromosome Adam lived.

More ancient Adam
But the results, though fascinating, are just part of the story, said Michael Hammer, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Arizona who was not involved in the study.
A separate study in the same issue of the journal Science found that men shared a common ancestor between 180,000 and 200,000 years ago.

And in a study detailed in March in the American Journal of Human Genetics, Hammer's group showed that several men in Africa have unique, divergent Y chromosomes that trace back to an even more ancient man who lived between 237,000 and 581,000 years ago. [Unraveling the Human Genome: 6 Molecular Milestones]

"It doesn't even fit on the family tree that the Bustamante lab has constructed — It's older," Hammer told LiveScience.

Gene studies always rely on a sample of DNA and, therefore, provide an incomplete picture of human history. For instance, Hammer's group sampled a different group of men than Bustamante's lab did, leading to different estimates of how old common ancestors really are.
Adam and Eve?

These primeval people aren't parallel to the biblical Adam and Eve. They weren't the first modern humans on the planet, but instead just the two out of thousands of people alive at the time with unbroken male or female lineages that continue on today.

The rest of the human genome contains tiny snippets of DNA from many other ancestors — they just don't show up in mitochondrial or Y-chromosome DNA, Hammer said. (For instance, if an ancient woman had only sons, then her mitochondrial DNA would disappear, even though the son would pass on a quarter of her DNA via the rest of his genome.)

As a follow-up, Bustamante's lab is sequencing Y chromosomes from nearly 2,000 other men. Those data could help pinpoint precisely where in Africa these ancient humans lived.

"It's very exciting," Wilson Sayres told LiveScience. "As we get more populations across the world, we can start to understand exactly where we came from physically.
Culled from Yahoo!

Knowledge Is Power – Seek For It


TinyPortal © 2005-2011
SimplePortal 2.3.5 © 2008-2012, SimplePortal